Nathaniel Branden’s Case against Theism Examined:
The First Cause Argument
by James Kiefer
Unpublished dot-matrix printout dated June 28, 1980

[Editor’s notes are in blue.]

[01] T. Aquinas, Summa Theologiae (or Summa Theologica) 1a.2,3.

[02] N. Branden, “IAD: The ‘first cause’ argument” 1/5/19c-k [May 1962] [References of this form refer to The Objectivist Newsletter, so that volume 4, number 3 would be March 1965. After volume 4, the name of the publication was The Objectivist. The page numbers for the latter are those of the original format, not those in the bound volume. “IAD” was a department of the two periodicals: the “Intellectual Ammunition Department.”]

[03] What follows is adapted from the argument of Duns Scotus, Opus Oxionese, I. Dist. II, Q. I.

[04] A Rand, “Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology” 5/10/2b [October 1966] & Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, 40. [The reference here is to the original paperback monograph reprinting the articles from the periodical. The corresponding page in the hardback printing of the Expanded Edition is 40.]
MM ... the meaning of a concept consists of its units.

MMA. Rand, “Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology” 5/10/2b [October 1966] & IOE 41 [Expanded Edition: 41].
MM... to define “existence,” one would have to sweep one’s arm around and say, “I mean this.

MMA. Rand, “Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology” 5/12/3b [December 1966] & IOE 53 [Expanded Edition: 56].
MMExistence and identity are not attributes of existents, they are the existents.... The units of the concepts of “existence¸ and “identity” are every entity, attribute, action, event, or phenomenon (including consciousness) that exists, has ever existed or ever will exist.

MML. [Leonard] Peikoff, “The Analytic-Synthetic Dichotomy,” 6/6/7f & IOE 98 [Expanded Edition only]

[05] A Rand, “Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology” 5/12/5b [December 1966] & IOE 55 [Expanded Edition: 59].

[06] See Webster, Oxford, Funk and Wagnalls, or the Random House American College dictionary.

[07] A Rand, “Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology” 5/8/4g [August 1966] & IOE 27 [Expanded Edition: 24].
MMThe definition of “animal” (in general terms) would be: “a living entity possessing the faculties of consciousness and locomotion.”

MMA Rand, “Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology” 5/10/6f [October 1966] & IOE 45 [Expanded Edition: 47].
MM... man is classified biologically in several subcategories of “animal,” such as “mammal,” etc.

[08] A Rand, “Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology” 5/7/9b [July 1966] & IOE 20 [Expanded Edition: 16].

[09] A Rand, “Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology” 5/10/5g [October 1966] & IOE 44 [Expanded Edition: 45–46].

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